For instance, any influence from potentially paralysing mucus secretions should not vary predictably with the amount of substrate provided. These examples highlight the challenges in assessing how undrilled prey perish in the field; concerns regarding prey health are not limited to laboratory experiments in attempting to recognize alternative modes of predation by naticids. Huelsken et al., 2008) and may not respond in the same way if exposed to varying sediment levels in laboratory settings. However, other species may have different depth requirements (e.g. Maximum depths reported from field observations range upwards of 15–25 cm (Stinson, 1946; Medcof & Thurber, 1958; Bernard, 1967; Kenchington, Duggan & Riddell, 1998). Removal of mucus yielded an active response from U. vestiarium within 30 min, however, indicating that any numbing effect was not permanent. B.N. In addition, incomplete drillholes have been interpreted to signify failed attempts at drilling (e.g. 3 Comments Mark Ridgway a year ago. Nine different PFCs were measured in eleven mollusk species (soft tissues) collected from 9 coastal cities. This project resulted from work started as part of the National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates program awarded to P. Kelley and G. Dietl (Grant No. Commonly referred to as moon snails, naticids are widely recognized for their shell-drilling (boring) behaviour that results in characteristically countersunk drillholes in the shells of their prey, comprised mostly of other infaunal molluscs. Our experiments, however, show that most modern accounts of suffocation in tightly closing bivalves can be discounted as a result of weak prey in laboratory settings, alleviating concerns regarding the interpretation of the frequency of complete and incomplete drillholes. In addition, four holes that were complete but not yet sufficiently widened for feeding were subsequently redrilled, as later observations revealed expanded inner diameters. Gould, 2010) could have led to gaping, allowing for feeding via the margin, or natural mortality followed by scavenging, which could have been perceived as suffocation. With over 172,000 shells for sale. However, a predator exerts less control over predation success in suffocation, in which success depends more on prey respiration rates, than in drilling. We hypothesize that suffocation should be more common than drilling at shallower sediment depths due to extensive prey carrying during prolonged searching for a preferred location to burrow with prey. The experiments conducted in this study are a first step in such research. Variation in the frequency of clams consumed by drilling in different sediment depths was assessed using a chi-square goodness-of-fit test with an alpha level of 0.05. Number of Mercenaria mercenaria consumed by Neverita duplicata for different sediment depths based on pooled data from all replicates. These moon snails were stressed in the absence of sediment and showed no interest in available prey. Albula didyma Röding, 1798 (original combination) Glossaulax didyma (Röding, 1798) Natica chemnitzii Récluz in Chenu, 1843 (doubtful synonym) 3E). Thirdly, every 72 h surface observations were noted for signs of decay or weak clams that had gaped or could not bury themselves in the sand (Flimlin, 2004). We recognize, however, that other prey species may be more susceptible to suffocation. due to suffocation); (2) restrict use of ‘suffocation’ to situations in which mortality is attributed to respiratory distress; (3) promote the more appropriate phrase ‘alternative modes of predation’ as encompassing all feeding by naticids that is not accomplished using a completed drillhole and (4) abandon the term ‘smothering’ as it is not employed consistently or clearly in the literature, in part because multiple mechanisms may be executed by naticids in achieving apparent suffocation. 3C). Reid & Gustafson (1989) stated that bivalve prey were limp and unresponsive after being drilled, leading them to investigate pharmacological properties of oesophageal gland secretions of Lunatia lewisii. This behaviour is not commonly observed if sand is provided; Bernard (1967) noted that such behaviour by naticids likely reflects undesirable conditions. Alternative modes of naticid predation have been recorded in both field (Table 2) and laboratory (Table 3) settings. Wheatley, 1947), others have regarded natural mortality or disease as the destructive agents (e.g. Neverita duplicata were collected locally from an intertidal flat near Masonboro Inlet, NC (UNCW Research Lease: 34°10′46″N, 77°50′30″W); all moon snails were initially sized at 25–26 mm in length. Edible whelk mainly includes Buccinum undatum (Nasution & Roberts, 2004), Busycon carica (Eversole, Anderson, & Isely, 2008), Dicathais orbita (Woodcock & Benkendorff, 2008), Neptunea arthritica cumingi Crosse (Gang et al., 2018, Gang et al., 2019), Neverita didyma (Gang et al., 2019) and Volutharpa ampullaceal (Gang et al., 2018). Christensen (1970), for instance, reported that there is an inverse correlation between size of the gape and oxygen tolerance in bivalves, suggesting that widely gaping bivalves are likely more susceptible to suffocation. Sepkoski, Jr. J. J. ^Available data listed here for prey consumed by alternative means were not divided by prey species by Aronowsky (2003) or by predator species by Grey (2001). Position of prey reflects stereotypical drilling of umbonal region. E. Evidence of scavenging by N. duplicata in a laboratory setting. Height (maximum dimension parallel to the coiling axis) and length (perpendicular to height) were recorded every 6 d for each naticid to evaluate growth rates during the experimental period. Albula didyma Röding, 1798. To minimize the impact of external factors on feeding behaviour, only seawater controlled to room temperature was used (19.4–23.4°C). Terms such as ‘smothering’ are ambiguous and should be abandoned; ‘nondrilling predation’ is not inclusive of all alternative predatory behaviours. Buy Neverita didyma by Jesse Russell, Ronald Cohn (ISBN: ) from Amazon's Book Store. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Thus it remains uncertain if a single agent or a combination of factors may be responsible for several so-called smothering deaths in the literature; resolving such accounts is beyond the scope of our work. The few bivalves exhibiting signs of questionable health, as indicated by successful wedging, were discarded prior to experiments. expected from the optimal diet model (Hughes & Elner 1979, Hughes & Seed 1981, Jubb et al. The mitochondrial genome of the marine gastropod Neverita didyma (Roding, 1798) (Mollusca: Gastropoda) 1100–400BC)andiscomposed,asfarasweknow atthemoment,ofsixdwellings,someofthemlinkedbyenclosurewalls. Results of our experiments are compared with those obtained for The occurrence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the Bohai Sea region, a semi-enclosed bay in north China, was assessed in this present study. More recently, Hasegawa & Sato (2009) used ‘smothering’ to denote merely the encasement of mucus that immobilizes naticid prey for days, even though eventual death is due to drilling and not suffocation, adding further confusion to the meaning of smothering as a predatory behaviour exhibited by moon snails. Deaths were mostly attributed to suffocation as opposed to operculum wedging, due to the presence of incomplete drillholes. Evolutionary patterns within naticid gastropods of the Chesapeake Group: an example of coevolution? Quality control and monitoring of prey are crucial to identify cases of natural mortality (as recognized by Ansell & Morton, 1985, 1987) or inadvertent suffocation of stressed prey. Because TTX-bearing gastropods are strongly attracted to concentrations of TTX, Hwang, Noguchi & Hwang (2004) suggested that this neurotoxin may serve as a defence or attack behaviour for such species. 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