Why or why not? There is no official state religion but the Myanmar government favors the majority Theravada Buddhism population. [50] The NFL has also changed rules to discourage helmet-to-helmet contact,[51] and has instituted protocols for safely returning concussed players to the field. [88] Kathleen Bachynski, Youth Football is a Moral Abdication, The Atlantic, Feb. 1, 2020. [47] Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. [32] Matt Ventresca & Mary G. McDonald, Forces of Impact: Critically Examining Sport’s “Concussion Crisis,” in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Ventresca & McDonald, eds., 2019). Explain why and how using that approach might play out. Close Figure Viewer Daniel Goldberg observes that “there is also a crucial social and political question that is not simply a function of that empirical evidence base: to what risks is it acceptable to expose youths and adolescents?”. [36] Munro Cullum, Is Football Bad for the Brain? Why or why not. 5. There are two types of utilitarian ethics practiced on the job, rule utilitarianism and act utilitarianism. For many years this mining area has been protected by the Kachin Independence Army. Why, then, do you think they oppose letting adults choose freely to play football? [82] Stephen S. Hanson, ‘He Didn’t Want to Let His Team Down’: The Challenge of Dual Loyalty for Team Physicians, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 45(3): 215-227 (2018). © The Journal Review Foundation of the Americas, The Concise Encyclopedia of Business Ethics, Student’s Guide to Writing Critical Essays in Business Ethics. [8] Jeanne Marie Laskas, Concussion (2015). Utilitarianism also has trouble accounting for values such as justice and individual rights. Is Getting Soft. Deontological? This was a radical view, in an era in which only white, property-owning males were really thought of as being entitled to a full range of rights. It has been suggested at both the NFL and collegiate level that team physicians are faced with conflicting loyalties. Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? [84] Ted Tatos, Playing Games with College Athletes’ Lives, The American Prospect, May 20, 2020. And for the same reason, a helmet alone will not prevent CTE.”[55] Furthermore, while the NFL has banned helmet-to-helmet hits, these are neither the only nor the most common cause of concussions. How about the reverse—why do many people who believe football players should be free to decide what they do with their bodies take decidedly un-libertarian positions on issues such as abortion, marijuana legalization, and assisted suicide? [91] J.S. Utilitarianism is part of a larger family of consequentialist ethical theories—theories according to which the rightness or wrongness of actions is determined by their tendency to produce good or bad consequences or outcomes. Explain. A study of former NFL players found that those who began playing football before age 12 tended to show greater later-life cognitive impairments as compared to those who began after age 12. [79] Peter Benson, Big Football: Corporate Social Responsibility and the Culture and Color of Injury in America’s Most Popular Sport, Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 41(4): 307-334 (2017); Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? In the wake of the recent pandemic, Oklahoma State head football coach Mike Gundy said “In my opinion, if we have to bring our players back, test them. Myanmar amber is plentiful, high quality and contains inclusions within the resin. Utilitarianism holds that the most ethical choice is the one that will produce the greatest good for the greatest number. If you apply Systematic Moral Analysis to the question of whether or not it is moral to continue to support and/or play football, do you get different results for different league categories and age groups? Stripped down to its essentials, utilitarianism is a moral principle that holds that the morally right course of action in any situation is the one that produces the greatest balance of benefits over harms for everyone affected. [11] Justin Ehrlich et al., Mortality Risk Factors Among National Football League Players: An Analysis Using Player Career Data, F1000Research 2019, 8:2022. This article was published in The International Journal of Ethics (1890-1938), which is continued by Ethics (1938-present). Explain. An NFL player who plays 24 games increases the likelihood of premature death by 16%. 30 videos - one minute each - relate recent scandals in the news and give ethical insights. However, the science in this area is truly not settled. In some cases, amber contains inclusions, such as insects, whole or parts of animals, and plants that are trapped and preserved. Utilitarianism is a theory of morality, which advocates actions that foster happiness and opposes actions that cause unhappiness. Chen noted that “there is no such thing as an acceptably risky crib,” but contrasted it with sports like football where “hazards are part of their attraction.” She asked: “How much risk is too much?”. Utilitarianism says in particular that the right action in any situation is the one that will produce the best outcomes, as measured by impact on everyone involved. It is a universal concept that all of us can understand. [60] Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. [67] Adam M. Finkel & Kevin F. Bieniek, How Public Helath Science Evaluates Evidence, Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 25(3): 564-589 (2019). See Bennet I. Omalu et al, Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in a National Football League Player, Neurosurgery, 57: 128-134 (2005); [9] Ann McKee et al., The Neuropathology of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, Brain Pathology, 25: 350-364 (2015). https://www.cell.com/current-biology/pdf/S0960-9822(19)31097-8.pdf, Greshko, Michael, “Ancient Bird Foot Found in Amber Has Bizarrely Long Toes,” National Geographic, July 11, 2019.   https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2019/07/fossil-bird-in-amber-has-unusually-long-toes/, Lawton, Graham, “Blood Amber: The Exquisite Trove of Fossils Fueling War in Myanmar,” NewScientist, May 1, 2019. https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24232280-600-blood-amber-the-exquisite-trove-of-fossils-fuelling-war-in-myanmar/, Nelson, Alexandrea, “The Materiality of Morality: Conflict Minerals,” Utah Law Review, 2014: 1, p. 219 (2014). [85] Michael Cunningham, Player Safety Takes Back Seat as NCAA Rushes to Allow Campus Workouts, Atlanta Journal-Constitution, May 22, 2020 (quoting Huma). It is a form of consequentialism. Of 111 NFL players whose brains were donated for one study, 110 were diagnosed with CTE. Many recent studies point to how dangerous football is to players’ long-term brain health. African-Americans make up 12.6% of the American population but 68% of NFL rosters. A documentary and six short videos reveal the behavioral ethics biases in super-lobbyist Jack Abramoff's story. That part of his personality that harbours these hostile antisocial feelings must be excluded from membership, and has no claim for a hearing when it comes to defining our concept of social … 1. (Probably not; other kinds of brain abnormalities, such as inflammation or damage to neural wiring from head injuries, may play a role.)”. [56] Christie Aschwanden, Football’s Concussion Crisis Is Awash with Pseudoscience, Wired.com, Oct. 2, 2019 (quoting brain scientists Adnan Hirad). [71] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harm_principle. [22] Steven Senne, Student Athletes Still Reluctant to Report Concussions, Nationwide Children’s Study Finds, Columbus Dispatch, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.dispatch.com/news/20191124/student-athletes-still-reluctant-to-report-concussions-nationwide-childrens-study-finds. How do we answer that question? After examining DeGeorge (2010) a utilitarian approach to this case study in handling self-interest is too impractical. The government then forced more than 5000 inhabitants from their homes and villages, as well as from the amber mines. In one study, use of newly-designed football helmets and safe tackling techniques eliminated concussions for 20 middle school aged players for an entire season. The ability to hold a piece of history untouched by time has resulted in a number of scientific discoveries and advances such as feathers on a non-avian dinosaur dated 99 million years ago and the biosynthesis of gene clusters for novel antibiotics. Do you agree? If so, how would you go about guarding against it have a deleterious impact? Steve Almond argues that “a civilian leisure class … has created, for its own entertainment, a caste of warriors too big and strong and fast to play a child’s game without grievously injuring one another.”. Are the answers different for NFL players, college players, high school players, and under-14 players? A utilitarian perspective would focus on outcomes: if more good (more happiness) is created overall by giving a child a job, then it is right to do so, even if we agree that in principle it would be better if the child didn’t need the job. Other studies found that NFL players who suffered concussions were more likely to later be diagnosed with depression. [68] Bill Pennington, Trump Says N.F.L. Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that says that the right thing to do in any situation is whatever will “do the most good” (that is, whatever will produce the best outcomes) taking into consideration the interests of all concerned parties. Football rules intentionally create high speed collisions between human beings, making such injuries inevitable and the sport controversial. This philosophy states that the morality of an action is best judged by the utility or usefulness of such an action. Utilitarianism (Consequence-based Ethics) One of the most influential ethical frameworks, utilitarianism is focused on consequences and results; the sole basis of morality is determined by its usefulness or utility. [83] Des Bieler, Oklahoma State’s Mike Gundy Says His Team Needs to Play for Benefit of State Economy,” Washington Post, April 7, 2020, at https://www.washingtonpost.com/sports/2020/04/07/oklahoma-states-mike-gundy-says-his-team-needs-play-benefit-state-economy/. If you took a utilitarian approach to answering this question, what would your reasoning look like? [46] Robert F. Heary et al., Is Youth Football Safe? 57 Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? We Know Little About the Long-term Effects of Concussions, Statnews, Sept.27, 2019. [23] Steven Senne, Student Athletes Still Reluctant to Report Concussions, Nationwide Children’s Study Finds, Columbus Dispatch, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.dispatch.com/news/20191124/student-athletes-still-reluctant-to-report-concussions-nationwide-childrens-study-finds. The NFL and universities, among others, urge no rash actions until there is more concrete proof of a causal link between concussions and adverse health outcomes. [35]  Other studies have involved skewed samples, including one where all the NFL players’ brains had been donated because of mental declines that the donors had suffered before their deaths.[36]. A study of former high school and college football players found that RHI exposure predicted later-life apathy, depression, executive dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. A political issue? [47] There is also evidence that the NFL sought to influence the findings of some of the research it funded. Some people accuse the media (and others) of hysterically overhyping the dangers of tackle football to the brain. One suggested solution to the concussion problem is to outlaw helmets on the theory that players will be forced to reduce headfirst collisions and other trauma-causing actions. Utilitarians argued, for instance, in favour of rights for women and for people of various races. [12] Jesse Mez et al., Duration of American Football Play and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopothy, Annals of Neurology, 2019; DOI: 10.1002/ana.25611. Many people who are in favor of abolishing football or significantly reforming the way it is played are pro-choice when it comes to abortion, minor drug use, and assisted suicide. There are two major ethics theories that attempt to specify and justify moral rules and principles: utilitarianism and deontological ethics. Another study found that greater RHI exposure correlated with higher levels of plasma t-tau (a biomarker for CTE) in symptomatic former NFL players as compared to the study’s control group. 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Explain. Regarding sports concussions, President Obama stated: “We have to change a culture that says ‘you suck it up and play through a brain injury…. However, many such studies were funded or carried out by the NFL, owners of NFL franchises, universities that earn millions of dollars from football, and other interested parties. [48] Kathleen Bachynski & Daniel S. Goldberg, Time Out: NFL Conflicts of Interest with Public Health Efforts to Prevent TBI, Injury Prevention, at https://injuryprevention.bmj.com/content/24/3/180.full; Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020; Mark Fainaru-Wada & Steve Fainaru, League of Denial: The NFL, Concussions, and the Battle for Truth (2013). [93] Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? As told in the movies, a significant scientific breakthrough occurred in 2002 when an African-American neuropathologist in Pittsburgh named Bennet Omalu (played by Will Smith in the 2015 movie “Concussion”) performed an autopsy on Hall of Fame center Mike Webster. This would arguably produce the greatest good for the greatest number. This has led some to suggest that the NFL is a modern plantation. Pamela R. Sailors, Personal Foul: An Evaluation of the Moral Status of Football, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(2): 269-286 (2015). Are college (and high school) players sufficiently mature to make reasoned judgments based on such disclosures? And concussion recurrence has been reduced, most likely by protocols guiding when it is safe to return to play. “ justified harm ” in any of these Leagues 5000 inhabitants from their and. From Giving Voice to Values by Mary Gentile created ethnic and religious conflicts resulting in discrimination! 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